Phosphate fertilizers

Phosphate fertilizers - one of the main fertilizers that improve productivity and product quality. It contains phosphorus, a positive effect on the generative organs of the plant. Because of its activating action, phosphorus plays a crucial role in photosynthesis, transferring energy and hydrogen. Therefore, phosphorus fertilization is particularly important for crops, trade bodies which are the seeds and fruits (cereals , fruit , berry , most vegetables).

Common symptoms of a lack of phosphorus: vegetable plants suspend the growth of leaves and young stems acquire color from dark green to blue-green; in fruit - stalks and some leaves are bluish- pink becoming brown or green color.

Phosphate fertilizers are not dangerous to plants, even at very high application rates (as opposed to nitrogen), because it does not increase the concentration of soil solution. However, for them it is necessary to adhere to certain rules of application, depending on soil fertility and types of fertilizers used.

Application rates can be calculated independently for a specific phosphorus fertilizer for each crop. It is desirable and most accurate way to determine the application rate, but it is desirable to know the reserves of phosphorus in your soil (samples analyzed in special laboratories, which are in all cities). The easiest, but inaccurate method - simply follow the general guidelines on the packaging of fertilizers. Typically, in this case also, good results can be obtained. 

There are various methods of fertilizer application, but in any case, the fertilizer should be embedded in the ground quickly. Outdoors, the bulk of the fertilizer applied in the fall by digging ( plowing ), as some phosphorus fertilizers, unlike nitrogen, bad or no place in the deep layers of the soil root zone " on their own " ( rainfall or irrigation water ). The remainder of phosphorus fertilizers (usually 20-30 % of the general rate ) is introduced in the spring before planting or at planting, as well as a dressing.

The raw material for the production of phosphate fertilizers are apatite, phosphates, bone, sulfuric and phosphoric acid. Apatite - a mineral that is part of igneous rocks, phosphorus - rock of sedimentary origin. In these natural phosphates phosphorus is in the form of insoluble.

For digestible plant fertilizer applied to any soil, it is necessary to translate the natural insoluble phosphates in the water-soluble or digestible salts. This transfer is the decomposition of acids or by heating ( for example, phosphorus thermal sublimation ).

Methods of processing phosphate ores in artificial fertilizers can be divided into the following groups:

1. decomposition of natural phosphates acids ( sulfuric, nitric, phosphoric, hydrochloric less ). This yields mainly water-soluble fertilizer - superphosphate, triple superphosphate;

2. hydrothermal processing of natural phosphates - steaming to give tsitratnorastvorimyh limonnorastvorimyh or so-called fluorine-free phosphate;

3. decomposition of natural phosphates by sintering or melting them at high temperature with sodium salts, potassium, magnesium and other alkaline earth metals. The result nitratno - or lemon - soluble fertilizer - termofosfaty, processed phosphates.

Phosphate fertilizers

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